In actual life, many users know little about hard disk storage and data recovery principle. So they often have two misunderstandings: one is that once data is deleted, it no longer exists anymore. The other is that data recovery technology is almighty that every kind of lost data can be recovered. Now, let me introduce some basic hard disk storage structure and data deletion and formatting principle to you.

Storage principle of hard disk
Before using, hard disk must be formatted and then system can be installed. Take FAT32 for example, hard disk is divided into MBR, FAT, and DATA three parts. MBR is made up by two parts: Master Boot Record and Disk Partition Table. MBR includes a series of parameter of hard disk and a section of boot program. Boot program mainly is used to boot operating system that is in active partition after system hardware self-checking. Disk partition table records partition information of hard disk. FAT is used to record file allocation. It is like the content of a book, recording attributes, size, and allocation of every file. It saves file in the form of single linked list. Every operation about file is based on FAT. DATA is the main sector which saves data body, storing data with binary system.

When we save one file, system will firstly write the filename, size, file content, and initial position to FAT. Then system will start to record actual body of the file to hard disk. Thus, file storage is finished.

Data deletion and formatting
Data deletion principle is actually very simple. It operates with FAT but not DATA. When we delete a file, system will firstly find the file and mark a deletion sign, taking it as deleted. Its space is released and other file can be written in. It's like removing a chapter from the content. The actual body of this chapter is not deleted. Formatting operation has the similar principle, marking every file with deletion sign so that system will take this partition as empty.
After deleting or formatting, file content is actually still in hard disk. With special data recovery software or data recovery technology, we can take off the deletion mark and recover lost data. However, if new data is written in after deleting or formatting, and occupies the location of deleted data, data will be overwritten so that no data can be recovered anymore. Then we can see that data recovery is not almighty.

Through this brief introduction, I believe you have some new knowledge about data recovery now. To recover lost data, it is suggested to try the free and professional data recovery software MiniTool Power Data Recovery. It provides users with five functional modules including Undelete Recovery, Damaged Partition Recovery, Lost Partition Recovery, Digital Media Recovery, CD/DVD Recovery, helping users with various data loss situations. It is not only easy-to-use, but also secure.

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